Human anatomy, histology and embryology for medical, dentist and pharmacist students in Hungarian, English and German. PhD courses on biological rhythms and in vitro bioassays.
- Neurohumoral control of the anterior pituitary and the pineal gland.
- Mechanism and control of secretion from endocrine glands (anterior pituitary, pineal gland, gonads, pineal gland, thyroid gland).
- Mechanism of circadian and seasonal biorhythms.
- Mechanism of the sexual differentiation in the rat.
- The mechanism of tumor growth-inhibiting action of synthetic analogs of LHRH and GHRH.
- Control of the female sexual cycle and sexual behavior.
- Steroid receptors in malignant tissues.
- Generation and characterization of antibodies against bioactive molecules of low molecular weight.
- Computer programming for biomedical research.
- dispersed cell superfusion / perifusion,
- in situ hybridization,
- nucleotide techniques (PCR, RT-PCR, blots),
- antigen- (from haptene) and antibody-preparation techniques,
- various surgery/stereotaxic techniques on rats,
- radio-receptor assay,
- classic histological techniques,
- electro-physiology (single cell recordings),
- assessment of sexual behavior of rats.
Significant scientific results:
(unless otherwise stated, my experimental works were carried out in the Anatomy Department of the Medical University of Pécs - later University of Pécs, Medical School. For each topic, only a few representative publications are given. The complete list of my publications and scientific presentations are shown separately.).
In 1971, using pituitary autografts in rat, I described first that the TRH (then TRF) secreting parvocellular neurosecretory cells are located in the paraventricular nucleus. That time, the belief, that the paraventricular nucleus belongs only to the magnocellular system, was so strong that it could not be published. The data appeared only in a prize-winner rector's prize essay.
Csernus V.: Adatok a thyreotroph hormon releasing faktort termelő struktúrák hypophysiotroph arean belüli lokalizációjáról.[Data on the localization of the thyrotrop hormone-releasing factor within the hypophysiotropic area] - POTE TDK pályamunka, 1971.
It was a partial reward for me that I could verify this observation also with immunohistochemistry in rats and birds in 1988 utilizing produced the first anti-TRH antibody (produced by me).
Merchenthaler I., Csernus V., Csontos Cs., Petrusz P., Mess B.: New data on the immunocytochemical localization of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) in the rat central nervous system. - Amer. J. Anat. 181. 359-376. 1988.
Józsa R., Korf H.W., Csernus V., Mess B.: Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-immunoreactive structures in the brain of the domestic mallard. - Cell. Tissue Res. 251. 441-449. 1988.
In 1975, I proved first in rat that the corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH, that time called CRF) is produced primarily in the arcuate nucleus.
Csernus V., Lengvári I., Halász B.: Further studies on ACTH secretion from pituitary grafts in the hypopysiotrophic area. - Neuroendocrinology 17. 18-26. 1975.
In 1977-78, as a Ford fellow in the Brain Research Center of the University of California, Los Angeles, under supervision of T. Sawyer and R.A. Gorski, I collected data on the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the medial preoptic areaGorski R.A., Csernus V.J., Jacobson C.D.: Sexual dimorphism in the preoptic area. - In: Adv. Physiol. Sci., Vol. 15. Reproduction and Development, B. Flerkó, L. Tima (eds.) Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 1981. 121-130.
Jacobson C.D., Csernus V.J., Shryne J.E., Gorski R.A.: The influence of gonadectomy, androgen exposure, or a gonadal graft in the neonatal rat on the volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area. - J. Neurosci. 1. 1142-1147. 1981.
In 1979-80, I established a steroid RIA laboratory in the Anatomy department. The laboratory was the first one in Hungary and among the first ones in Europe with own development of antibodies and methodology. The laboratory was a reference laboratory of WHO between 1982 and 1988.
Csernus V.: Antibodies of high affinity and specificity for radioimmunologic determination of progesterone, testosterone and estradiol-17ß. - In: Advances in Steroid Analysis, S. Görög (ed) Akadémiai Kiadó Budapest, 1982. 171-177.
Csernus V.: Determination of estriol in serum. - In: Advances in Steroid Analysis '84, S. Görög (ed), Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 1985. pp 151-155.
In 1981-87, in collaboration with work group of Prof. Julia Szekeres (Microbiology Department, Univ. Pécs) we studied the role of progesterone and progesterone receptors of lymphocytes as immunologic blocking factor in human pregnancy
Szekeres J., Csernus V., Pejtsik S., Emödy L., Pácsa A.S.: Progesterone as an immunologic blocking factor in human pregnancy serum. - J. Reprod. Immunol. 3. 333-339. 1981.
Szekeres-Bartho J., Kilar F., Falkay G., Csernus, V., Torok, A., Pacsa, A.S.: The mechanism of the inhibitory effect of progesterone on lymphocyte cytotoxicity: I. Progesterone-treated lymphocytes release a substance inhibiting cytotoxicity and prostaglandin synthesis. - Am. J. Reprod. Immunol. Microbiol. 9. 15-18. 1985.
In 1983-86, utilizing the possibilities the steroid RIA laboratory, I studied mechanism of the sexual differentiation. I evidenced first the one of the most crucial steps of the sexual differentiation, a short, transitory, physiological release of testosterone in the sexual critical period (4th postnatal day) in the young male rats. The data coincided well and explained the physiological background of the experimental "androgen sterilization", which was used earlier as a model of sexual differentiation.
Csernus V.: Production of sexual steroids in rats during pre and early postnatal life. - Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. 88. 1-5. 1986.
In 1985-88 I became familiar with a dynamic in vitro bioassay, with the superfusion method. With the method, I collected well defined data on the secretory mechanisms of various endocrine- and tumor cells. I made several methodological improvements, developed a mathematical model and wrote a computer program for the sophisticated analysis of the large quantity of collected data.
Csernus V., Schally A.V.: The dispersed cell superfusion system. - In: Neuroendocrine Research Methods, B.D. Greenstein (ed.), Harwood Academic Publishers, London, 1991. pp. 71-109.
Rékási Z., Csernus V., Horváth J., Vígh S., Mess B.: Long-term dynamic in vitro system for investigating rat pineal melatonin secretion. - J. Neuroendocrinology 3. 563-568. 1991.
For a total of four years (1987-89 and 1998-99) I worked in the Endocrine, Polypeptide and Cancer Institute of Tulane University (). A team of chemists and biologists, lead by Prof. A.V. Schally, developed synthetic agonistic and antagonistic analogs of LHRH, GHRH and somatostatin as anti-cancer drugs alone, or as a "magic bullet" component. Within the team, I analyzed the dynamic receptor binding of a total of 280 synthetic analogs with the superfusion method.
Bajusz S., Csernus V.J.,& al..: New antagonists of LH-RH II. Inhibition and potentiation of LH-RH by closely related analogues. - Int. J. Peptide Protein Res. 32. 425-435. 1988.
Bajusz S., Janáky T., Csernus V.J.,& al..: Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. - Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86. 6313-6317. 1989.
Bajusz S., Janáky T., Csernus V.J., & al..: Highly potent analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing D-phenylalanine nitrogen mustard in position 6. - Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86. 6318-6322. 1989.
Csernus V., Schally A.V.: Evaluation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonistic activity in vitro. - Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89. 5759-5763. 1992.
Csernus V.J., Schally A.V., Kiaris H., Armatis P.: Inhibition of growth, production of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II), and expression of IGF-II mRNA of human cancer cell-lines by antagonistic analogs of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) in vitro - Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96. 3098-3101. 1999.
As a part of the project, we provided fundamental data on the release mechanism of a novel drug form: controlled delivery system.
Csernus V., Szende B., Schally A.V.: Release of peptides from controlled delivery systems (microcapsules and microparticles) in vivo; a histological and immunohistological study. - Int. J. Pept. Prot. Res. 35. 557-565. 1990.
In 1989-93 I collected data on the differences between the secretory mechanisms of the endocrine cells secreting peptide hormones or small hydrophobic hormone molecules (steroids, melatonin).
Csernus V., Rékási Z., Mess B.: Differences in hormone release patterns from the anterior pituitary and the pineal gland. - Acta Biol. Hung. 45. 207-221. 1994.
In the period of 1981-2007, in collaboration with the work team of Prof. Ida Gerendai (Semmelweiss University, Budapest, Anatomy Dept.), I participated in collecting data on the neural control of gonadal function.
Gerendai I., Nemeskéri Á., Csernus V.: Naloxone has a local effect on the testis of immature rats. - Andrologia 15. 398-403. 1983.
Gerendai I., Csernus V.: Differences in testicular functions of the right and left testis in unilaterally vagotomized rats with unilateral testicular injection of physiological saline. - Neuroendocrinology (Life Sci. Adv.) 11. 551-555. 1992.
Gerendai I., Csaba Zs., Voko Z., Csernus V.: Involvement of a direct neural mechanism in the control of gonadal functions. - J. Steroid Biochem. Molec. Biol. 53. 299-305 1995.
Banczerowski P., Csaba Zs., Csernus V., Gerendai I. The effect of callosotomy on testicular steroidogenesis in orchidectomized rats A pituitary-independent regulatory mechanism. - Brain Res. Bulletin 53. 227-232. 2000.
In the early nineties I became interested in the mechanism of the circadian biological rhythms. This is my favorite experimental topic since then. Investigation of the activity of explanted chicken pineal model in a dynamic in vitro bioassay (superfusion) system proved to be an excellent and fruitful model for collecting data in this field. Using this model my work-team was able to prove, that
In 1994 I established a superfusion laboratory in the Martin Luther Universität, Halle for analyzing of dynamic insulin secretion of isolated rat pancreatic islets. Utilizing the method, the German work team became very successful. The collected novel, dynamic, quantitative data enabled a deeper insight into the mechanism and control of the insulin secretion.
Peschke E., Peschke D., Hammer T., Csernus V.: Influence of melatonin and serotonin on glucose-stimulated insulin release from perifused rat pancreatic islets in vitro. - J.Pineal Res. 23. 156-163. 1997.
Csernus V.J., Hammer T., Peschke D. and Peschke E.: Dynamic Insulin Secretion from Perifused Rat Pancreatic Islets. - Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 54. 733-742. 1998
In an attempt to ease and facilitate the development of novel anti-cancer agents, in 1998-99, I studied cAMP release from large number of human tumor cell-line in the superfusion system in Prof. Schally's team. I proved that the cAMP level in the environment of the cell parallel its intracellular concentration allowing to follow delicate changes in cAMP concentration in living cells. The method made it possible to study the anti-proliferative effect of novel synthetic drugs, developed for anti-cancer agent, quick, inexpensively and accurately.
Csernus V.J., Schally A.V., Groot K.: Antagonistic analogs of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) inhibit cyclic AMP production of human cancer cell lines in vitro - Peptides 20. 843-850. 1999.
Csernus V.J., Schally A.V., Groot K.: Effect of GHRH and peptides from the vasoactive intestinal peptide family on cyclic AMP production of human cancer cell lines in vitro - J. Endocrinology 163. 269-280. 1999.
- The explanted chicken pineal gland has a complete circadian biological clock that can be influenced by many physical (light, magnetic field, temperature) effects and biochemical compounds. The model works for over a week in vitro. The phase of the pineal clock can be easily followed by measuring the secreted melatonin.
- Ghosh M., Csernus V., Mess B.: In vitro melatonin secretion pattern of the avian pineal gland with special reference to light reactivity. - Neuroendocrinol. Lett. 3. 195-200. 1994.
- Csernus V., Ghosh M., Mess B.: Development and control of the circadian pacemaker for melatonin release in the chicken pineal gland - General and Comparative Endocrinology 110. 19-28. 1998
- Csernus V., Becher P., Mess B.: Wavelength dependency of light-induced changes in rhythmic melatonin secretion from chicken pineal gland in vitro. - Neuroendocrinology Letters 20. 299-304. 1999.
- The model shows all the basic characteristics of the biological clocks (stable period time, easy phase control).
- Csernus V., Mess B.: Biorhythms and pineal gland. - Neuroendocrinology Letters 24. 404-411. 2003.
- Csernus V., Mess B. (editors): Rhythmic biological processes. The role of the biological clocks. Dialog-Campus Kiadó, Budapest, 2003. p 258
- Csernus V., Mess, B.: The avian pineal gland - a model of the biological clock. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 2004. p 87.
- Beside light, the biological rhythm of the avian pineal can be synchronized also with rhythmic changes of the environmental temperature and weak magnetic field.
- Faluhelyi N., Csernus V. The effects of periodic alteration of the temperature on the rhythmic melatonin release of explanted chicken pineals. - Neuroendocrinol. Lett., 26. 503-510. 2005.
- The circadian clock of the avian pineal already fully developed in the embryonic age (in ovo).
- Csernus V.J., Nagy A.D., and Faluhelyi N.: Development of the rhythmic melatonin secretion in the embryonic chicken pineal gland. - Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 152. 148-153. 2007.
- Faluhelyi N., Matkovits A., Párniczky A., Csernus V.: The in Vitro and in Ovo Effects of Environmental Illumination and Temperature on the Melatonin Secretion from the Embryonic Chicken Pineal Gland - Annals N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1163. 383-385. 2009.
- Based on our novel primers targeted avian clock gene mRNA, data were collected on the development and control of the biological clocks.
- Csernus V., Faluhelyi N., Nagy A.D.: Features of the circadian clock in the avian pineals. - Annals N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1040. 281-287. 2005.
- Nagy A.D., Csernus V.: Cry1 expression in the chicken pineal gland: effects of changes in the light/dark conditions. - Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 152. 144-147. 2007.
- Nagy A.D., Seomangal K., Kommedal S, Csernus V.J.: Expression of Cry2 in the chicken pineal gland. Effects of changes in light-dark conditions. - Annals N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1163. 488-490. 2009.
- Experiments by applying many drugs specifically targeting the known intracellular signal transduction pathways has shown that only the melatonin secretion can be modified with them but not the phase of the pineal biological clock. These data indicate that for the synchronization of the avian pineal biological clock a novel, still not known intracellular signal transduction system is responsible.
- Csernus V.: Rhythmic pineal functions in birds. - In: Abhandlungen der Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, Verlag der Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, In Kommission bei S. Hirzel Stuttgart/Leipzig, 2003. pp. 65-88.
- Csernus VJ.: The avian pineal gland. - Chronobiology International 23. 329-339. 2006.
- Peschke E., Mühlbauer E., Musshoff U., Csernus V.J., Chankiewitz E., Peschke D.: Receptor (MT1) mediated influence of melatonin on cAMP concentration and insulin secretion of rat insulinoma cells INS-1 - J. Pineal. Res. 33. 63-71. 2002.
- Csernus V., Józsa R., Reglődi D., Hollósy T., Somogyvári-Vigh A., Arimura A.: The effect of PACAP on rhythmic melatonin release of avian pineals. - Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 135. 62-69. 2004.
- Utilizing our experiences on clock-gene expression and immunohistochemical detection of clock-gene proteins, we are also collecting data on the interaction between the circadian clock and malignant human tissues.
- Zsuzsanna Lengyel, Zita Battyáni, György Szekeres, Valér Csernus, and András D. Nagy: Circadian clocks and tumor biology: what is to learn from human skin biopsies? - General and Comparative Endocrinology 188. 67-74. 2013
As one of my hobbies, I wrote computer programs for supporting research (RIA, superfusion, etc.) and some other utilities.
My following programs are available free from me. If you are interested, send me an e-mail.
Some of the programs:
- RIA32 - radioimmunoassay processing program
- SUP32 - superfusion / perifusion processing program
- FileSync - file backup / synchrinozaion utility
- DCat32 - Disk / CD cataloging and sophisticated file search system
- DDiff.exe - folder content comparing and re-arrangement program
- Sudoku.exe - sophisticated (classic) sudoku player and solver program
My favourite sayings...
„One could not be a successful scientist without realizing that, in contrast to the popular conception supported by newspapers and mothers of scientists, a goodly number of scientists are not only narrow-minded and dull, but also just stupid.” (J.D. Watson - The Double Helix)
„Akinek nem inge, ne vegye magára.” (~ If the cap fits, wear it!) (Hungarian proverb)
„You can get further with kind words and a gun than with kind words alone.” (Al Capone)
„Those who consider themselves to be too intelligent to become invloved in politics are destined to be governed by stupid people. ” (Platon)
„Nobody has ever lost money by underestimating the intelligence of the public.” ( x )
„Must we find the solution? Cannot we just enjoy the problem for a while?” ( x )
„95% of PC problems are located between the keyboard and the chair.” ( x )
„I am not young enough to know everything.” (Oscar Wilde)
„Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I'm not sure about the universe.” (Albert Einstein)
„Wise men talk because they have something to say; fools, because they have to say something." (Plato)
„Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new.” (Albert Einstein)
„Education is an admirable thing, but it is well to remember from time to time that nothing that is worth knowing can be taught.” (Oscar Wilde)
„You have enemies? Good. That means you've stood up for something, sometime in your life..” (Winston Churchill)
„The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them."(Albert Einstein)
„The great thing about democracy is that it gives every voter a chance to do something stupid." (Art Spander )
„The best argument against democracy is a five-minute conversation with an average voter." (Winston Churchill)
„The difference between genius and stupidity is that genius has its limits." (Albert Einstein)
„For an uneducated man it is very useful to read books of quotations." (Winston Churchill)
„Those people quote others, who lack own thoughts." (I)