The subject

The aim of the Embryology for dentistry students 1 subject is to learn the basics of general embryology. Knowing about normal human development is essential for comprehension of the normal anatomical situation and explains many of the developmental malformations. During the semester you will get acquainted with the early development of the embryo. This is the first part of a two-semester subject.

The exam

The exam is oral or written (multimedia test) on the last week of the semester, depending ont he number of registered students.
During the exam - besides your topic - you will get short general questions from the material of the semester. If you cannot answer your embryology topic, the examiner will decide based on the general embryology knowledge whether your knowledge is satisfactory or not.

We call your attention that the semester will be accepted only (you will be allowed to sit for the exam) if you did not exceed the absence limit (see information of absences).

Exam questions


1. Gametogenesis: Spermatogenesis.
2. Spermiogenesis. Morphology of the spermatozoon.
3. Gametogenesis: Oogenesis.
4. Ovulation and fertilization.
5. Cleavage of the fertilized egg, morula, formation of the blastocyst (First week of development).
6. Implantation: changes in the uterus. Development of the blastocyst during the second week.
7. Homeobox genes, determination of body axes.
8. Gastrulation. The epiblast fate map.
9. Neurulation, derivatives of the ectoderm.
10. Differentiation and derivatives of the mesodermal germ layer.
11. Cephalo-caudal and lateral foldings. Derivatives of the endoderm.
12. Development of the muscular system.
13. Growth of bones: increase in length and diameter. Remodelling of bones. Ossification centers. (Attention: not the same as histology of ossification!)
14. Development of the skull. Malformations.
15. External appearance of the embryo, development of the fetus. Characteristics of the newborn.
16. Fetal membranes, umbilical vessels and umbilical cord. Formation of the placenta.
17. Twinnings.
18. Factors causing malformations (with examples).

Detailed program

Suggested textbook