The subject

Anatomy describes the macroscopic structure of the human body. This is the first part of a two-semester subject. During the practices we give at first a general view about the structure of bones and joints, students will then learn the main muscle groups, vessels and nerves of the limbs and the trunk with the aid of human formaline-fixed cadavers. In the second part of the subject we describe the structure of the skull and the temporomandibular joint in details and at the end the vertebral column especially its cervical part.

Presence on at least 85% of course hours is required. Absence (for any reason) is max. 3 teaching hours (= 3x45 min.) Exceptionally, students may attend the practice of another group (on the same week). Students are allowed to make up only two classes in one semester this way. Student must ask the teacher of the other group for the permission to attend the class. In case the class is full, the teacher has the right to refuse the query.

The exams

The exam is an oral-practical exam at the end of the semester. At the exam, students pick one of each group of exam questions. Depending on the nature of the chosen question, students must identify structures on the cadaver, preparations and/or skull. The final mark of the exam is calculated as weighed average of the results of the two exam parts. Student showing lack of fundamental knowledge in any part of the exam is not allowed to pass it.

Exam questions for dentistry students

General anatomy

1. Main parts of human body. Main plains and directions.
2. Classification of bones and types of their connections.
3. Obligatory components of synovial joints.
4. Types and movements of joints (with examples).
5. General myology (origin, insertion, action, fascia).
6. Muscle groups of trunk.
7. Muscle groups of upper limb.
8. Muscle groups of lower limb.
9. General overwiew of the circulations.
10. Main arteries supplying the limbs, arteries for testing pulse. Main veins of limbs.
11. Spinal segments. Spinal nerve plexuses.
12. Main branches of spinal nerve plexuses, and the muscle groups innervated by them.

Osteology & arthrology

1. Bones and general structure of the skull.
2. Details of bones forming neurocranium.
3. Cranial fossae, their openings and the structures passing through them.
4. Details of bones forming viscerocranium (without mandible).
5. Mandible.
6. Orbit, its openings and the structures passing through them.
7. Nasal cavity, its openings and the structures passing through them.
8. Oral cavity, its openings and the structures passing through them.
9. Fossae (temporal, infratemporal and pterygopalatine) of the viscerocranium, their openings and the structures passing through them.
10. Temporomandibular joint.
11. Main parts of vertebrae and those of the vertebral column.
12. Characteristics of cervical vertebrae. Atlantooccipital and atlantoaxial joints.

Information on the skull-requirements of the Anatomy-1 exam.

Suggested literature