- Human anatomy (gr. "dissection", from ana: "up", and temnein: "cut"), is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the human body. Anatomy is subdivided into gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy, regional anatomy) is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by unaided vision. Histology (gr. "tissue", and -logia) is the study of the microscopic anatomy of cells and tissues of the human body. It is performed by examining a thin slice (section) of tissue under a light or electron microscope. The ability to visualize or differentially identify microscopic structures is frequently enhanced through the use of histological stains. Human embryology (from gr. embryon, "unborn, embryo"; and -logia) describes the development of the human body from the fertilization until the birth, the forming of organs and organ systems and examines the effects which can influence these processes.
- It is very important to know the normal macroscopic and microscopic structure and development of the human body, because it serves as a basis for understanding physiological processes and pathological changes. Since the majority of drogs produced or sold by pharmacists influence the health of the people, can effect both extra- and intrauterine development of the human body, it is essential for a pharmacy student to be clear about the basic anatomical and histological structure and development of the human body.
- Anatomy, histology and embryology for pharmacy students is a two-semester subject. In the first semester we will concentrate at first on the basic tissue types, since these are the tissues, which build up our body and the knowledge about their composition is essential for understanding the structure of organs. The basic tissue types are the epithelial, the connective- supportive, the muscle and the nervous tissue (only the last one will be discussed in the second semester when the nervous system will be detailed.) Parallel to this, we start with describing systematically the macroscopic and histological structure of the different organ systems and their basic functional aspects.
The following organ systems will be handled during this semester:
- locomotor system: bones, joints, muscles
- integumentary system: skin
- circulatory system: heart, vessels
- respiratory system: airways, lung, pleura
- digestive system: oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, gastrointestinal tract, digestive glands, peritoneum
- urinary system: kidney, urinary tract
- blood and immune system
- Similar to other subjects of medical curriculum, studying of Anatomy is accomplished out in two interwined forms:
- contact hours (lectures and practices), where expert, trained teachers help studying of the students with interpreting the subject and offering specimens
- individual learning e.g. at home, in dormitories, and libraries using textbooks; consulting the web-pages
- During the semester you will have 14 lectures (1x45 min. a week) and 7 practices (1x90. min every even week). 4 practices will be held in the dissecting room, 3 of them in the histology room. During the dissecting practices the teacher will demonstrate you structures you heard about in the lectures on the cadaver (formalin fixed human body) or on plastic preparations. These practices make it possible, to understand the anatomical relations much better, because you will see the structures three-dimensional. Besides you will have 3 histology practices, where you will learn, how to use a light microscope and with the aid of a teacher you will examine histological slides of tissues or organs, the pharmaceutical relevance of which is high (for lack of time it is not possible to present all the tissues discussed in the lectures).
- The presence of the students on the dissecting room and histology practices is continuously and strictly registered. The number of acceptable absences is set by the regulation of the Medical School; over a certain number of absences (for any reason), the grade-book of the students is not signed, i.e. the course (the semester) cannot be accepted, and, consequently, the student is not allowed to take exam.
- The maximal number of absences is 4x45 min (lectures or practices). It corresponds to 15% of the total number of contact hours (28). If you have more than 4 hours absences, but less than 7, you should contact the course director, and in the presence of a medical or other relevant certificate the case will be considered and it will be decideds whether the semester can be accepted or not. In case of more than 7 hours of absences (25% or more of the total number of contact hours) the semester will not be accepted even if you show a medical or other certificate.
- in order to keep up with the curriculum, we start and finish the lectures and practices on time. Students are kindly asked not to be late. The number of delays is also registered: 3 delays make one absence, or if you are late more than 15 min, it is considered an absence.
- The exam material corresponds to the topics discussed in the lectures and practices. The slides of lectures and the list of structures presented in the practices you can download from our website. Besides the handouts also textbooks are needed for understanding topics which are not shown in the slides in details (list of suggested textbooks see below)
- The exam (A chance) is a written test held in the exam period. The exact time point of the exam will be determined at the end of the semester with the agreement of students. The number of questions is 40 in the test. For each question you will have approximately 30-40 seconds time depending on the difficulty of the question (one slide contains about 2-3 questions), so the test lasts 30 minutes. The test is made in ppt and runs automatically so it is not possible to return to a question. Students write their answers into the numbered rows of an answer sheet. Different types of questions can occur in the test, e.g. short questions, pictures with structures marked by arrows or multiple choice-like questions.
For each correct answer you get 1 point. To get a satisfactory (2) mark, the student has to give more than 50% correct answers (20pt). To help you to prepare for a successful exam tests for practicing are available on our website.
- B and C chances are oral exams. In that case, 2 questions are taken, students have at least 20 minutes for preparation. Exam topics correspond to the titles of lectures held during the semester. For a successful exam students must answer both of the topics at least for a satisfactory grade. If you do not know one of the taken topics, the examiner decides whether she/he let you pick up an another topic or she/he asks general questions. If you do not know any of your topics, you will fail.
- Faller A, Schuenke M: The Human Body: An Introduction to Structure and Function, 2004
- Moore KL & Agur AMR: Essential Clinical Anatomy . 3rd ed, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 2007
- Learn material on the home-page of the Anatomy Department (lectures, handouts, photos of histological slides)
- Langman's Medical Embryology