Human anatomy (gr. "dissection", from ana: "up", and temnein: "cut"), is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the human body. Anatomy is subdivided into gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy, regional anatomy) is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by unaided vision. Histology (gr. "tissue", and -logia) is the study of the microscopic anatomy of cells and tissues of the human body. It is performed by examining a thin slice (section) of tissue under a light or electron microscope. The ability to visualize or differentially identify microscopic structures is frequently enhanced through the use of histological stains. Human embryology (from gr. embryon, "unborn, embryo"; and -logia) describes the development of the human body from the fertilization until the birth, the forming of organs and organ systems and examines the effects which can influence these processes.
It is very important to know the normal macroscopic and microscopic structure and development of the human body, because it serves as a basis for understanding physiological processes and pathological changes. Since the majority of drogs produced or sold by pharmacists influence the health of the people, can effect both extra- and intrauterine development of the human body, it is essential for a pharmacy student to be clear about the basic anatomical and histological structure and development of the human body.
Similar to other subjects of medical curriculum, studying of Anatomy is accomplished out in two interwined forms:
The presence of the students on the dissecting room and histology practices is continuously and strictly registered. The number of acceptable absences is set by the regulation of the Medical School; over a certain number of absences (for any reason), the grade-book of the students is not signed, i.e. the course (the semester) cannot be accepted, and, consequently, the student is not allowed to take exam.
- contact hours (lectures and practices), where expert, trained teachers help studying of the students with interpreting the subject and offering specimens
- individual learning e.g. at home, in dormitories, and libraries using textbooks; consulting the web-pages
The rules of the dissecting rooms
The students should enter the dissecting rooms before the beginning of the practice, before the teacher arrives. The earliest time the students may enter the already prepared dissecting room is 10 minutes before the beginning of the practice. The period till the practice begins is a good opportunity for the students to study the preparations.
It is PROHIBITED
The students are permitted to stay in the dissecting rooms only during the regular practices in the presence of a teacher. Exceptions:
- to be the dissecting rooms in a day wear. The students must enter in a white, clean, buttoned-up lab-coat, which completely covers, and thus protects their cloth. The Department can`t loan lab coats, scalpel or forceps.
- to bring coats, any other pieces of dress, bags or other personal belongings into the dissecting rooms or store them in the hallways of the Department. The students should use their lockers provided by the Faculty for storing these items. The Department can not take responsibility for the belongings left in the hallways during the practices.
- to eat, drink, smoke or to chew gum in any teaching facilities.
- to attend practices under the influence of any medicine or drug that reduces or influences somatic and/or mental capabilities.
- to take pictures or make recording recordings (audio or video) with any kind of devices without the specific permission of your practice leader.
- o to let in any unauthorised person into the dissecting rooms without the permission of the Head of the Department
Instruments needed for working in the disecting rooms:
- officially announced free practices preceding the semester exams,
- within 10 minutes before the regular practices,
- with special permission of the Head of the Department for preparing teaching materials (senior students only, first of all members of the Scientific Student Body working in the Anatomy Department).
Only instruments and objects that needed for your studies in the dissecting room and listed in the previous paragraph can be taken into the dissecting room. No personal belongings, food, drink are allowed to bring into the dissecting rooms.
To honor human dignity, we demand proper respect towards the remains of our fellow men, under any circumstances. Therefore, loudness, tasteless jokes, or any other sort of an improper, irresponsible behaviour is strictly prohibited in the dissecting rooms.
The students are supposed to make all efforts to save the tidyness, cleanness, the conditions of the instruments and fixtures in the dissecting rooms. The wet and dry specimens should be treated separately. Parts of human origin can only be kept on appropriate trays; waste of human origin should be collected separately in the provided collecting bowls. In case the dissecting table or the floor becomes contaminated, they immediately should be cleaned (prevention of accidents doe to slipperiness!).
To prevent any injury, sharp instruments should be used carefully, and should be kept in a hard case when not in use.
Do not leave any tool in the cadaver (hooks!)
Preparations, models, as well as X-ray and NMR pictures, provided for your study, can not be moved between dissecting rooms without the previous consent of the teacher. These materials should be treated and used with great care.
It is STRICTLY PROHIBITED to take away any specimen or teaching material from the premises of the Department. Strict measures, disciplinary punishment will be initiated in any cases against those, who break this rule, or try to initiate with the staff-members to provide them any human material for private purposes. The students are obliged to report, if they become aware of such an activity, otherwise he/she is considered to be an accomplice in the crime.
- anatomical forceps (serrated - no hooked, surgical ones!),
- a notepad of small size and a pen - to take notes,
- a few anatomy atlases for a group,
The rules of the histology rooms
In contrary to the dissecting rooms, the histology rooms can only be entered together with the teacher. Wearing lab-coats is not mandatory in these rooms. Only histology practical, and lecture notes, as well as the necessary writing and drawing tools are allowed to bring to the rooms, all other personal belongings should be stored in the students' lockers. Foods and drinks should not be brought to the histology rooms.
We suggest to students to make drawings of the slides they study during the practices. The purpose of preparing such drawings is not to improve the artistic ability of the students or to make the students's own histology atlas. It can help to learn histology effectively.
To make the drawings colored pencils (red and blue pencils are most frequently used) and the official histology workbook of the department are needed . For practical reasons, only pencils, which erasable, are suggested to use.
The students have to learn the careful use of microscopes thus ensuring the long lasting use of them. The Department highly regrets all the students to keep in mind the basic rules of using the microscope, as they listed below:
Moving the microscope on the table with the light on results in small "jumpings", which may damage of the light bulb. Students should set up the their working environment (including the position of the microscope) at the beginning of the practice, thus avoiding any further move of the microscope. The microscopes, with their lights on, should not be moved even for convenience of the teachers/examinors.
The iris diaphragm should be completely open (with a few exceptions), and the amount of light set to a comfortable level. Doing so not only improves the quality of the viewed pictures but prolongs the life of the light bulb.
The binocular tube (holding the eye-pieces) can be rotated around the longitudinal axis. We ask the students not to take advantage of this capability, since the screw fixing the tube is not designed for intensive usage. Please accept that the ocular should face straight backward all the time.
The objectives of the microscope are "synchronized". This means that if once the slide is in focus with the smallest power, switching to higher magnification, minimal, if any, focusing is necessary. Consequently, lifting the objectives after slide changes is unnecessary; it overloads the mechanical system of the microscope and increases the probability of breaking the slide. Turn the objective holder to the smallest magnification before removing the slides. If turning the macrometer (coarse focusing knob) is unavoidable, please use the knobs on both sides (except the newest microscopes).
The eye-pieces (oculars) get easily dirty because of the intensive usage (mascara...). Students may clean them with paper tissue or soft cotton (T-shirt). Microscopic slides can be treated similarly (the slides are cleaned before they get into use at the beginning of the week; however after some practices they may become dirty).
Before the slide is placed into the microscope it should be checked that the cover-glass is facing up. This should become automatic! If a slide cannot be focus with high power, then it is probable, that the covers glass is facing down.
If a microscope becomes unusable for any reason during the practice, the student has to move to other microscope. The microscopes must not be moved, no parts of the microscopes allowed to exchange. Before the student moves to a new place this should be approved by the teacher.
Please do not try to repair the microscope. In case of any problem, please call your teacher.
The projector and the video-microscope should only be used by the teachers.
Each microscope has two eye-pieces (oculars) and a pointer (built into one of the oculars, and used for pointing objects in the slides), three objectives (fixed into the objective-holder which can be rotated), a blue filter and a condenser. Each student has to check the presence of these parts on the microscope at the very beginning of each practice. In case the student finds any changes, any abnormality or missing parts of the microscope he/she should report the fact to the teacher immediately to avoid being blamed unnecessarily. Otherwise, if the problem is reported at the beginning of the pracice, the student, who failed to report, will be blamed.
The microscopes are very sensitive and expensive instruments. Consider please, that we offer the use of the microscopes free of charge (in some universities the students are supposed to buy and bring their own microscopes). It is everyone's principal duty to save the microscopes and to prevent their abuse. It is unethical to tolerate from "loyalty" when someone impairs a microscope. If a damage or loss is discovered and no one else take the responsibility, we have to charge the last user of the microcope for it. Some examples of prices: blue filter 4.000 Ft, an objective 15.000-50.000 Ft - and they cannot be used for anything else.
We strongly ask every student to treat the microscopic slides with great care. It is very difficult to get fresh, good quality human specimens and to prepare them properly. For breaking a slide, you will be charged 1.000-2.000 Ft, depending on how serious is the damage.